Dr. Judith A. Weller

I would like to take this opportunity to offer special thanks to my colleagues in this work: David Read & Seneca. Both of these gentlemen have provided me their insight on this topic as well as sources. This would have been impossible to complete without them. They authored this work as much as I did and reviewed and offered suggestions and comments along the way.

To contact us please write to Judy Weller (judyweller@atlanticbb.net). We do not have up-to-date contact information for David Read. Our former collaborator SENECA (SENECA@argo.rhein-neckar.de) passed away in July 2016.

INDEX - Click on the underlined keywords to be taken to the appropriate section. Footnotes appear at the end of each section.


  1. Who was Lefebvre des Noëttes?
  2. A matter of Dates
The Horse
The Harness Systems
  1. The Dorsal Yoke
  2. The Tandem Hitch
  3. The Neck Yoke
Geography and Roads
Wagon Construction
Load Limits
The Horse in Agriculture
The Horse in Art

Other Research on Land Transport

Revision history of Roman Traction Systems:

1999-07-09: Corrections in load.html
1999-06-24: Added link to other research on land transport.
1999-06-12: Added a quotation from Spruytte to dorsal.html
1999-06-06: Corrections in load.html
1999-06-02: Spelling correction in wagon.html
1999-06-01: Editorial corrections by the author
1999-05-29: First public WWW version (many corrections and additions in all files)
1999-05-15: Spelling errors in harness.html, dorsal.html corrected. Books by Langdon and Treue added to bibliography.
1999-05-08: Error in wagon.html corrected (Wardartal is in Bulgaria, not Germany), footnotes 23 and 29 modified. Spelling corrections in horse.html. Two new bibliography items.
1999-05-02: Layout correction in art.html, new item in bibliography (Michel Polfer).
1999-04-30: Typing corrections in files neck.html, load.html, agriculture.html, art.html
1999-04-27: Full author's name in all files. Various typing corrections in files introduction.html, horse.html, harness.html, dorsal.html, tandem.html, neck.html, geography.html, wagon.html.
1999-04-26: Added counter.
1999-04-25: Typing error in file wagon.html, footnote 29 corrected. Typing error on index page corrected. Typing error in file load.html corrected. Image in file art.html (Fig. 37) replaced with correct one. Added navigation links at the bottom of each section.
1999-04-24: First non-public WWW version

HTML by Erik Möller 1999. Click image below to view site statistics: